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Office Telephone Systems

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Office Telephone Systems Have to Be Dependable – Here’s What You Need to Know

An interoffice phone system that replaces traditional single-line telephones can increase productivity. It reduces time spent hunting for phone numbers and increases call reliability across short distances. There are several options to consider when selecting a phone system for your business.

Multiline or PBX

Multiline telephones are designed for small office settings where a receptionist or answering machine is present. A central phone system links to up to ten other individual phone lines throughout an office and separates them by extensions like “Line 3” or “Line 4.” When someone calls the central telephone number, a receptionist can forward callers to the appropriate “Line” to complete their call.

Phone branch exchange (PBX) systems work by automating the process of forwarding calls with a prerecorded message or ability to dial an extension during menu options. PBX systems are better suited to large businesses who will continue to add additional lines and will need to digitally forward multiple calls across departments.

Multiline Dependability

Multiline telephones are cheaper than PBX systems because of their simplicity. Multiline systems allow for each telephone to have their own phone number, or be routed through a central phone that a receptionist can forward. If the separate phone number rings and the line is currently busy, the caller will be directed to voicemail.

Depending on the business type, multiline phones sometimes feature the option to use “rollover” calling. Rollover calls are when multiple incoming calls occur simultaneously. As calls come in, if the current telephone line is in use, the second or third callers will be passed on to the other unoccupied phones on the system. This feature is most commonly seen in customer service offices where the next available representative takes calls in the order that they’re received.


While PBX systems are more difficult to install than a multiline telephone, the benefits and reliability of their service is unmatched. PBX telephones use a buffer or electronic message to prompt callers. They are given menu and dialing options and oftentimes the extension can be dialed at any time during the message.

It’s also possible to call the central office number with the extension amended to the end of the telephone number to be immediately connected to the person you’re trying to reach. PBX makes it easy to make interoffice phone calls by using the same extensions that outside callers would use. While multiline phones require each individual phone number to be working properly, PBX uses a single phone line to make phone calls within an office by routing all signals through the central phone number and using personalized phone extensions instead. To function properly, PBX systems use “dial out” numbers that must precede outside phone numbers to get outside of the PBX internal system. This is heard commonly as, “dial 9 to get out” in office environments.

How to Install a Wired Security Camera System

If you’ve decided to get a wired security camera system instead of a Wi-Fi camera, the setup is a bit more involved, but you’ll end up with a better system in the end. Here’s how to install wired security cameras.

For this guide, we’ll be installing an EZVIZ 1080p system, which comes with a DVR that locally records footage 24/7. No matter what system you end up going with, the installation procedure is similar across the board, with maybe a few differences here and there based on the system.

What You’ll Need

Unlike a simple Wi-Fi cam, you’ll need more tools for installing a wired camera system, including:

  • Ethernet cable
  • Baluns (Converts analog to digital—highly recommended if your system is analog)
  • A power drill with drive bits and spade bits (and some regular drill bits as well)
  • Steel fish tape
  • Masking tape (or any kind of tape for that matter)
  • A monitor, mouse, and keyboard
  • A friend to help out (seriously, this is highly recommended)

As you go through the installation process, you might decide to use other tools to make things a bit easier depending on your specific situation, but the things listed above are the basics that you’ll need.

How Wired Camera Systems Are Set Up

Before you dive deep into installing a wired security camera system, you first have to understand how everything is connected.

Pretty much every system consists of a set of cameras and a DVR box that serves as the user interface for managing the entire system, as well as storing all of the video footage that gets recorded.

All of the cameras connect directly to the DVR box, either using BNC cable for analog camera systems, or ethernet cable for digital systems. If you have an analog system, I highly recommend skipping the BNC cable and getting special adapters called baluns, which allow you to use Ethernet cables—they’re a lot easier to install and more modern overall.

Since the cameras directly plug into the DVR box, this means that if you install a camera by your back patio and the DVR box is upstairs in your home office, you’ll need to route the camera’s cable through your house in order to connect it to the DVR box, which canget a bit complicated, depending on how your house is built how exactly you plan to route the cable.

From there, the DVR box gets plugged into a power outlet and then you connect an external monitor to the DVR box to manage the entire system, see a live view of all the cameras, and review past recordings. Most systems will also come with a mouse, but a keyboard is also recommended.

Step One: Figure Out Where You Want Your Cameras

With my house, the best place to mount my cameras is on the soffit (the area underneath the roof overhang), that way the cables can travel directly through the attic.

When it comes to installing wired security cameras, it’s not enough to pick just any spot and mount them. You have to think about what makes the most sense as far as ease of installation (and if it’s even possible to install a camera where you want it).

For example, it would be great to have a camera mounted on the outside wall next to your front door in the upper corner, but you have to think about how you’re going to route the cable from the camera all the way to the DVR box. That is your limiting factor when it comes to installing the cameras.

So instead of mounting it on an outside wall, perhaps mount it on your front porch’s ceiling. From there you can run the cable through the porch’s own little attic and then up into the main attic, taking it wherever you want from there. Obviously, you’ll have the best judgement on this, but it’s something you’ll need to keep in mind.

Step Two: Prepare the Camera Installation

Depending on where exactly you install your cameras, you may need some different tools than what I use. For instance, I’m just drilling through wood, drywall, and aluminum, so a regular power drill and some basic drill bits will work fine. However, if you have to drill through brick or other masonry, you’ll likely want a hammer drill with some masonry drill bits.

In any case, start by marking a hole where the camera’s cable will feed through, as well as holes for where the camera’s mounting screws will go. Some kits will come with a template sticker that makes the job a lot easier. If yours doesn’t come with these, hold the camera up to the wall or ceiling where you want it and mark the holes with a pencil.

Get your power drill and a drill bit and drill pilot holes where the mounting screws will go. Then drill the bigger hole in the center that the cable will feed through. Usually you have to use a spade bit for the bigger hole, but you might be able to find a regular drill bit that’s big enough.

Step Three: Run Cables to Each Camera Location

Once you have holes drilled for your cameras, it’s time to run cable to each of your camera locations. This is also where the order of things might be different for you based on your situation, but essentially you’ll be drilling holes either through walls or ceilings in order to feed cables to where you need them to go.

For my installation, all of the cameras’ cables will converge in the attic above my garage, and from there they’ll all feed up into the main attic above the second floor. So to start, I’m going to take cable and feed various lengths out to the edges where my cameras will be. This is a lot easier to do if you have steel fish tape—it’s very difficult to physically locate yourself around the edge of your attic, since that’s where your roof slopes down and creates a very cramped space to work in. So to solve that, fish tape will be your best friend.

There’s no way I’m crawling all the way to the edge here, so I have fish tape do that for me.

You can feed the fish tape up into the hole that you just drilled for your camera.

Once the fish tape extends far enough into the attic for easier access, tape the end of the cable to the fish tape and pull on the fish tape from the outside to thread the cable through the hole you drilled. This job is a whole lot easier with a friend helping you.

Next unwrap and remove the fish tape, and your cable will be ready to hook up to your camera when you’re ready to install it. If you’re using ethernet cable, you might have to crimp your own connectors on if they’re not already installed.

Step Four: Run the Cables to the DVR Box

Once you have all of the cable runs located where each camera will be, it’s now time to route all of those cables to the DVR box.

You’ll likely need your fish tape for this again, as well as your power drill to drill holes through walls or ceilings. This is where things can become a bit complicated, so if you’re not quite sure where to start, maybe phone that friend if you haven’t already.

A section of wall is already cut out here, allowing me to easily fish all of the cables up into the main attic.

Essentially, I’m routing the cables from my garage’s attic up to the main attic that’s a floor higher. This requires a hole to be drilled in the garage’s attic wall, plus a second hole in the main attic to feed the cables all the way through. However, I got pretty lucky with my cable runs, since the path I wanted to take with all of the cables was already cleared by previous cables runs, so I didn’t have to drill any new holes through studs or walls. You may not be so lucky.

After all that, I’ll drill a hole in the ceiling in my closet to feed the cables down through that hole where they’ll meet the DVR box.

How you mount the DVR box is completely up to you. Most will have mounting holes on the back, similar to what power strips and surge protectors have. You can also just have it sit on a desk or tabletop of some kind.

Fish tape will be required to pull cables through all walls and ceilings, and you may end up taping cables to the fish tape, pulling them through, removing them, and repeating the process several times through multiple walls before the cables finally arrive to their destination.

Step Five: Install the Cameras

Things get a lot easier from here, since running the cables is definitely the most difficult part. Installing the cameras should only take a few minutes each.

Start by connecting the cable coming out from the hole to the camera itself. Then feed the excess back up into the hole.

If you want, you can wrap the connection with electrical tape to secure it so that it doesn’t get unplugged by accident.

Next, grab the mounting screws that came with your kit and use your power drill to mount the camera to your house.

After the camera is installed, you can then make some rough adjustments to the camera by loosening the adjustment screws and then tightening them back up when all adjustments have been made. Keep in mind that you’ll likely need to make finer adjustments once you can actually see the live view of the camera, so you’re not entirely done with this step just yet.

Step Six: Connect Everything Together

Once the other end of the cables are completely routed through your house, you can begin connecting them to the DVR.

The connections should be pretty easy, and as you can see, I’m using those special adapters that I mentioned further above. Just connect each cable to its own port, and then connect the external monitor to the DVR box, as well as the mouse and keyboard. You can also keep a USB drive plugged in for when you need to export any footage in the future.

Step Seven: Set Up the User Interface

This is where things can be different for you depending on what camera system you have, but the setup process is likely similar across the board.

With my system, the user interface setup consists of creating a password, setting the date and time, and going through a quick tutorial on how it all works.

From there, you’re good to go, but taking some time to navigate through the settings to customize some things is recommended, like whether or not your cameras should record 24/7 or only during motion, for example. Your system may also have video settings that you can tinker with to make the image quality a bit better.

Once you have your camera system officially up and running, take a look at the video feeds and decide if any of the cameras need adjusting. As described further above, use those small screws on the camera to adjust the positioning to where you want it.

7 steps to proper maintenance of a diesel generator

A diesel generator is the combination of a diesel engine with an electric generator (often an alternator) to generate electrical energy. This is a specific case of engine-generator. A diesel compression-ignition engine often is designed to run on fuel oil, but some types are adapted for other liquid fuels or natural gas.

They require less maintenance due to their durability, reliability and the sturdiness characteristic and also they are considered cheaper to operate due to the low fuels costs as compared to the other types of fuels such as gasoline and propane.

They can withstand heavy load for long hours and start off the power supply on full load within minutes and must be regularly maintained to ensure they provide quality power throughout their service life. The best generator maintenance practice is following the maintenance schedule provided by the manufacturer of the generator to ensure maximum service time for the generator and proper operation when it is called upon to provide power.

Having a well-designed and well-maintained standby power system is the best protection against utility power outages.For hospitals and other health-care facilities they can be life-threatening. For businesses like data centers, the outages can be enormously costly. Other critical facilities at risk include government offices, police departments, fire stations, airports, and water/sewage treatment plants.

The preventive maintenance tips for the diesel generator that guarantees uninterrupted power supply that is innocuous and consistent for all the needs intended for. They include the following aspects:

Diesel Generator Routine General Inspection

During the running of the diesel generator, the exhaust system, fuel system, DC electrical system and engine require close monitoring for any leaks that can cause hazardous occurrences. As with any internal combustion engine, proper maintenance is essential. Diesels are no exception, and the most important maintenance is oil changes at every 100 hours of operation for a long and trouble-free life assurance.

1.Lubrication Service

The engine oil must be checked while shutting down the generator at regular intervals using a dipstick.Allow the oil in the upper portions of the engine to drain back into the crankcase and follow the engine manufacturer’s recommendations for API oil classification and oil viscosity. Keep the oil level as near as possible to the full mark on the dipstick by adding the same quality and brand of oil.

The oil and filter must also be changed at acclaimed time intervals. Check with the engine manufacturer for procedures for draining the oil and replacing the oil filter and their disposal is to be done appropriately to avoid environmental damage or liability.

2.Cooling System

Check the coolant level during shutdown periods at the specified interval. Remove the radiator cap after allowing the engine to cool, and, if necessary, add coolant until the level is about 3/4 in. Heavy-duty diesel engines require a balanced coolant mixture of water, antifreeze, and coolant additives. Inspect the exterior of the radiator for obstructions, and remove all dirt or foreign material with a soft brush or cloth with caution to avoid damaging the fins. If available, use low-pressure compressed air or a stream of water in the opposite direction of normal air flow to clean the radiator.

3.Fuel System

Diesel is subject to contamination and corrosion within a period of one year, and therefore regular generator set exercise is highly recommended to use up stored fuel before it degrades. The fuel filters should be drained at the designated intervals due to the water vapor that accumulates and condenses in the fuel tank. Regular testing and fuel polishing may be required if the fuel is not used and replaced in three to six months. Preventive maintenance should include a regular general inspection that includes checking the coolant level, oil level, fuel system, and starting system. The charge-air cooler piping and hoses should be inspected regularly for leaks, holes, cracks,dirt and debris that may be blocking the fins or loose connections.

4.Testing Batteries

Weak or undercharged starting batteries are a common cause of standby power system failures. The battery must be kept fully charged and well-maintained to avoid dwindling by regular testing and inspection to know the current status of the battery and avoid any start-up hitches of the generator. They must also be cleaned; and the specific gravity and electrolyte levels of the battery checked frequently.

• Testing batteries: Merely checking the output voltage of the batteries is not indicative of their ability to deliver adequate starting power. As batteries age, their internal resistance to current flow goes up, and the only accurate measure of terminal voltage must be done under load. On some generators, this indicative test is performed automatically each time the generator is started. On other generator sets, use a manual battery load tester to attest the condition of each starting battery.

• Cleaning batteries: Keep the batteries clean by wiping them with a damp cloth whenever dirt appears excessive. If corrosion is present around the terminals, remove the battery cables and wash the terminals with a solution of baking soda and water (¼ lb baking soda to 1 quart of water). Be careful to prevent the solution from entering the battery cells, and flush the batteries with clean water when finished. After replacing the connections, coat the terminals with a light application of petroleum jelly.

• Checking specific gravity: In open-cell lead-acid batteries, use a battery hydrometer to check the specific gravity of the electrolyte in each battery cell. A fully charged battery will have a specific gravity of 1.260. Charge the battery if the specific gravity reading is below 1.215.

• Checking electrolyte level: In open-cell lead-acid batteries, verify the level of the electrolyte at least every 200 hr of operation. If low, fill the battery cells to the bottom of the filler neck with distilled water.

5.Routine Engine Exercise

Regular exercising keeps the engine parts lubricated and thwart oxidation of electrical contacts, uses up fuel before it deteriorate, and helps to provide reliable engine starting. Engine exercise is recommended to be executed at least once a month for a minimum of 30 min. loaded to no less than one-third of the nameplate rating.

6.Keep your Diesel Generator Clean

Oil drips and other issues are easy to spot and take care of when the engine is nice and clean. Visual inspection can guarantee that hoses and belts are in good condition. Frequent checks can keep wasps and other nuisances from nesting in your equipment.
The more a generator is used and relied on, the more it needs to be taken care of. However, a generator set that is rarely used might not need a lot of care.

7.Exhaust system inspection

In case there are leaks along the exhaust line which usually occurs at the connection points, the welds and the gaskets; they should be repaired immediately by a qualified technician.