Generator is a machine that converts mechanical energy into electrical energy. It works based on principle of faraday law of electromagnetic induction. The faradays law states that whenever a conductor is placed in a varying magnetic field, EMF is induced and this induced EMF is equal to the rate of change of flux linkages. This EMF can be generated when there is either relative space or relative time variation between the conductor and magnetic field. So the important elements of a generator are: Magnetic field Motion of conductor in magnetic field
Working of Generators:
Generators are basically coils of electric conductors, normally copper wire, that are tightly wound onto a metal core and are mounted to turn around inside an exhibit of large magnets. An electric conductor moves through a magnetic field, the magnetism will interface with the electrons in the conductor to induce a flow of electrical current inside it.
Types of Generators:
The generators are classified into types.
- AC generators
- DC generators
These are also called as alternators. It is the most important means of producing electrical power in many of the places since now days all the consumers are using AC. It works based on principle of the electromagnetic induction. These are of two types one is induction generator and other one is synchronous generator. The induction generator requires no separate DC excitation, regulator controls, frequency control or governor. This concept takes place when conductor coils turn in a magnetic field actuating a current and a voltage. The generators should run at a consistent speed to convey a stable AC voltage, even no load is accessible.
DC generator is typically found in off-grid applications. These generators give a seamless power supply directly into electric storage devices and DC power grids without novel equipment. The stored power is carries to loads through dc-ac converters. The DC generators could be controlled back to an unmoving speed as batteries tend to be stimulating to recover considerably more fuel.